Chifukwa chomwe zinthu zabwino kwambiri zopangira nkhope ya coronavirus mask ndizovuta kuzizindikira

Zosiyanasiyana mu nsalu, zoyenera, komanso momwe ogwiritsa ntchito amagwirira ntchito zimatha kukopa momwe chigoba chimalepheretsa kufalikira kwa kachilomboka

ndi Kerri Jansen

APRIL 7, 2020

Ndi milandu ya COVID-19 yomwe ikukula mofulumira ku US komanso umboni wokwanira woti kachilombo koyambitsa matendawa, SARS-CoV-2, ikhoza kufalikira ndi anthu omwe ali ndi kachilomboka asanayambe kukhala ndi zizindikilo, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention idalimbikitsa pa Epulo 3 kuti anthu valani nsalu zokutira kumaso m'malo opezeka anthu ambiri. Malangizowa achoka pakatikati pomwe anthu athanzi amangofunika kuvala maski posamalira munthu amene akudwala. Malangizowa akutsatiranso kuyitanidwa kwaposachedwa ndi akatswiri pazanema komanso malo ena kuti anthu onse apereke maski, nsalu zokuthandizani kuti muchepetse kufalitsa buku la coronavirus.

"Anthu wamba ayenera kuvala nsalu zopanda nkhope popita pagulu ndi anthu ena kuti athetse kufalikira kwa kachilomboka," Tom Inglesby, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, tweeted on March 29.

MUZITHANDIZA KUTI SUKULU YOPHUNZITSA SAYANSI
C&EN yapanga nkhaniyi komanso kufotokozera kwake za mliri wa coronavirus kupezeka kwaulere panthawi yophulika kuti anthu adziwe. Kutithandiza:
PATSANI PAMODZI PAMODZI PAMODZI

Akatswiriwa akuyembekeza kuti njirayi ichepetsa kufalikira kwamatenda powonjezera chitetezo china m'malo omwe kulumikizana ndi anthu kumakhala kovuta, monga malo ogulitsira, kwinaku tikusunga zida zochepa zodzitetezera kwa ogwira ntchito zaumoyo.

Intaneti ikuphulika ndimachitidwe osokera chigoba ndi upangiri pazinthu zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito bwino, koma mafunso ambiri omwe alibe mayankho amakhalabe onena za momwe SARS-CoV-2 imafalikira komanso phindu lomwe kuvala maski osagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala kungapatse anthu komanso anthu. Chifukwa cha kusiyanasiyana komwe kumakhalapo pazinthu zapanyumba, kapangidwe ka maski, ndi mawonekedwe ovala zophimba kumaso, akatswiri amachenjeza kuti mchitidwewu suli m'malo mwakutalikirana.

"Ndikofunikira kutsimikizira kuti kusasunthika pakati pa anthu ndi mapazi 6 ndikofunikira kuti muchepetse kufalikira kwa kachilomboka," malinga ndi tsamba la CDC logwiritsa ntchito nsalu zokutira kumaso.

Kumvetsetsa zomwe chigoba chiyenera kuchita kuteteza omwe amavala ndi omwe amawazungulira kumayamba ndikumvetsetsa momwe SARS-CoV-2 imafalikira. Akatswiri amaganiza kuti anthu amapatsira ena kachilombo kudzera m'madontho opumira. Malo opatsirana opatsirana malovu ndi ntchofu, otulutsidwa ndi kuyankhula ndi kutsokomola, ndi akulu ndipo amayenda mtunda wocheperako-amakonda kukhazikika pansi ndi malo ena mkati mwa 1-2 mita, ngakhale kafukufuku wina atanena kuti kuyetsemula ndi kutsokomola kumatha kuyambitsa kupitirira apo (Indoor Air 2007, DOI: 10.1111 / j.1600-0668.2007.00469.x). Asayansi sanagwirizanebe ngati kachilombo ka SARS-CoV-2 kangathenso kufalikira kudzera m'mayendedwe ang'onoang'ono, omwe amatha kufalikira patali ndikuchedwa mlengalenga. Poyesera kumodzi, ofufuza adapeza kuti kachilomboka kakhoza kukhalabe kachilombo m'mayendedwe a 3 h m'malo olamuliridwa ndi ma lab (N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, DOI: 10.1056 / NEJMc2004973). Koma kafukufukuyu ali ndi malire. Monga momwe bungwe la World Health Organization linanenera, ochita kafukufukuwo anagwiritsa ntchito zida zapadera popanga mpweya wabwino, womwe “sukusonyeza kuti munthu ali ndi chifuwa chotani.”

Masiki opangira kunyumba ndi ena osagwira ntchito amatha kugwira ntchito ngati maski opangira opaleshoni, omwe adapangidwa kuti achepetse kufalikira kwa majeremusi owavala kwa anthu oyandikira ndi malo poletsa kutulutsa kwa mpweya kwa wovalayo. Mpweya wopuma umaphatikizira malovu ndi madontho a ntchofu, komanso ma aerosols. Masks awa, omwe nthawi zambiri amapangidwa ndi pepala kapena zinthu zina zosaluka, amalumikizana momasuka pankhope ndipo amalola mpweya kutuluka m'mbali mwake pomwe wogwiritsa ntchito apumira. Zotsatira zake, samawerengedwa kuti ndi chitetezo chodalirika pakuthana ndi kachilombo ka HIV.

Mosiyana ndi izi, maski a N95 oyenererana bwino adapangidwa kuti aziteteza wovalayo pomata tinthu tating'onoting'ono tambirimbiri tolimba kwambiri ta polypropylene. Izi zimalumikizidwanso pamagetsi kuti zizikhala "zokakamira" kwinaku zikusunga mpweya. Maski a N95, omwe akagwiritsidwa ntchito moyenera amatha kusefa pafupifupi 95% ya tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timauluka mlengalenga, ndizofunikira pachitetezo cha ogwira ntchito zaumoyo omwe nthawi zambiri amakumana ndi anthu omwe ali ndi kachilomboka.

Kukhoza kuletsa mpweya wopuma-monga maski a nsalu ndi maski opangira opaleshoni-ndikofunikira chifukwa cha umboni wokula kuti anthu omwe ali ndi kachilombo ka SARS-CoV-2 koma omwe ali ndi zizindikilo zochepa kapena ali ndi ziwalo amatha kufalitsa kachilombo mosadziwa.

"Chimodzi mwazovuta zomwe zimayambitsa COVID-19 ndikuti nthawi zina anthu amatha kukhala ndi zizindikilo zochepa zomwe mwina sangazizindikire, koma zimapatsirana kwambiri," atero a Laura Zimmermann, wamkulu wa mankhwala oteteza kuchipatala Rush University Medical Group ku Chicago. "Chifukwa chake akutulutsa kachilomboka ndipo atha kupatsira ena."

Zimmermann akuti mamembala am'magulu azachipatala ku Chicago akambirana za kuthekera kogawa zigoba za nsalu kwa odwala m'malo mwa maski opangira opaleshoni, kusunga zida zodzitetezera (PPE). "Chovala chansalu chimatha kuthandizadi ngati wina ali ndi matenda enaake, ndipo mukuyesera kuti mukhale ndi madontho," akutero.

Pakulankhulana kwaposachedwa, gulu lapadziko lonse la ofufuza lipoti kuti maski opangira opaleshoni atha kuchepetsa kwambiri kuchuluka kwa ma virus omwe amatulutsidwa mlengalenga ndi anthu omwe ali ndi matenda opuma, kuphatikiza matenda amtundu wina (Nat. Med. 2020, DOI: 10.1038 / s41591-020 -0843-2).

Akatswiri ena omwe amalimbikitsa kuvala maski osagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala akuti mayiko ena omwe akwanitsa kuthana ndi kufalikira kwawo adachitanso izi. "Zovala kumaso zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndi anthu wamba m'maiko ena omwe akwanitsa kuthana ndi matendawa, kuphatikiza South Korea ndi Hong Kong," malinga ndi lipoti la Marichi 29 laku US coronavirus yankho lochokera ku American Enterprise Institute.

Linsey Marr, katswiri wofalitsa matenda obwera chifukwa cha ndege ku Virginia Polytechnic Institute ndi State University, akuti malingaliro ake asintha m'masabata apitawa, ndipo saganiziranso kuti anthu odwala okha ndi omwe ayenera kuvala maski. Ngakhale maski ena amaso angathandize kuchepetsa kuvala kwa omwe amavala ma virus, akuti, cholinga chachikulu ndikuchepetsa kufalikira kwa SARS-CoV-2 kuchokera kwa omwe ali ndi kachilomboka.

"Ngati aliyense wavala maski, ndiye kuti kachilombo kocheperako kadzafalikira mlengalenga komanso pamalo, ndipo chiopsezo chotengera kachilomboko chiyenera kuchepa," adalemba mu imelo ku C&EN asanavomerezedwe ndi CDC.

Koma anthu omwe akuganiza zopanga chigoba chawo amakumana ndi zosankha zingapo pakupanga ndi kusankha nsalu, ndipo mwina sizingakhale zovuta kudziwa njira zomwe zingakhale zabwino kwambiri. Neal Langerman, katswiri wokhudzana ndi chitetezo chamankhwala yemwe pakadali pano amalangiza makampani pazodzitchinjiriza za coronavirus, akuwonetsa kuti kuchuluka kwa zinthu zapakhomo kumatha kusiyanasiyana mosiyanasiyana, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kudziwa motsimikiza kuti ndi zinthu ziti zomwe zingapange chophimba kumaso. Momwe ulusi uliri mwamphamvu zitha kukhala chinthu, komanso mtundu wa ulusi womwe wagwiritsidwa ntchito. Mwachitsanzo, ulusi wachilengedwe ungafufume ukamayatsidwa ndi chinyezi kuchokera kumpweya wa munthu, ndikusintha kagwiridwe kake ka nsalu m'njira zosayembekezeka. Palinso malonda obwera pakati pa kukula kwa mabowo mu nsalu ndi kupumira - zinthu zochepa kwambiri zimakhalanso zovuta kupumira. Wopanga Gore-Tex, yopepuka, yaying'ono kwambiri yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito popangira zovala zakunja, adalandira mafunso ambiri okhudza ngati zinthuzo zitha kusefa SARS-CoV-2. Kampaniyo idatulutsa chenjezo loti isagwiritse ntchito zinthu zokometsera kumaso chifukwa chakuchepa kwa mpweya.

"Chovuta ndikuti nsalu zosiyanasiyana zimakhala ndi mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana, ndipo zikuwoneka kuti pali njira zambiri pamsika," a Yang Wang, wofufuza za aerosols ku Missouri University of Science and Technology, adalemba. Wang ndi m'modzi mwa ofufuza omwe akutolera zoyambirira za kusefera kwa zinthu zosavomerezeka chifukwa cha kuphulika komwe kukuchitika.

Asayansi apereka lingaliro lakugwiritsa ntchito maski osakanikirana kuti athane ndi matenda omwe amafalikira mwachangu, ndipo kafukufuku wambiri omwe adalipo kale awunika momwe zinthu zosiyanasiyana zapakhomo zimayendera. Kafukufuku wina wansalu zomwe zimapezeka kwambiri, kuphatikiza mitundu ingapo yama T-shirts, masiketi, matawulo, ngakhale malo amthumba, zidapezeka kuti zinthuzo zatsekedwa pakati pa 10% ndi 60% ya tinthu tating'onoting'ono tofanana mofanana ndi mpweya wopumira, womwe umagwirizana ndi magwiridwe antchito a maski ena opangira opaleshoni ndi maski amafumbi (Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2010, DOI: 10.1093 / annhyg / meq044). Zomwe zidasankhidwa ndi zosefera ndimitundu yabwino kwambiri kutengera kukula ndi kuthamanga kwa tinthu tomwe timayesedwa. Kafukufuku akuwonanso kuti mawonekedwe a mask ndi momwe amavalira amatha kusintha kwambiri magwiridwe antchito ake, zomwe ndizovuta kutengera m'malo azachipatala.

CDC imalimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito nsalu zingapo kuti aziphimba kumaso. Kanemayo, Opanga Opaleshoni ku United States a General Jerome Adams akuwonetsa momwe angapangire chigoba chotere kuchokera pazinthu zopezeka panyumba, monga T-shirt yakale.

Ngakhale pali magwiridwe antchito opangidwa ndi zokometsera, pali umboni wina woti ngakhale kuchepa pang'ono kwa kufalikira kwa tinthu kumatha kuthandiza kuchepetsa kufalikira kwa matenda pakati pa anthu. Kafukufuku wina yemwe adachitika mu 2008, ofufuza ku Netherlands adapeza kuti ngakhale maski osakanizidwa sanali othandiza ngati makina opumira, "kugwiritsa ntchito chigoba kwamtundu uliwonse kumachepetsa kufalikira kwa ma virus komanso kachilombo ka anthu, mosasamala kanthu kuti ndi opanda ungwiro komanso opanda ungwiro kutsatira ”(PLOS One 2008, DOI: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0002618).

Langerman akuti nkhawa yake yayikulu yokhudzana ndi anthu wamba ovala masks ndikuti, monga PPE iliyonse, kugwiritsa ntchito mask kumaso kumatha kupatsa wovalayo lingaliro labodza la chitetezo, ndipo mwina sangakhale okhwimitsa ndi zodzitetezera zina. Akatswiri abwerezanso kufunikira kokhala mtunda wa 6 ft (1.83 m) kapena kutali ndi anthu ena, kaya akuwonetsa zizindikiro kapena ayi. Langerman akuchenjeza za kudalira kwambiri maski opangidwa ndi nsalu kuti adziteteze kapena kuteteza ena.

"Ndicho chifukwa chake izi," akutero. "Ngati munthu adzipanga makina ake oti azipumira nawo, kodi amamvetsetsa zowopsa zomwe amasankha, kuti athe kudziwa zomwe asankha? Sindikukhulupirira kuti yankho la funso limeneli lidzakhala inde. ”


Post nthawi: Dis-30-2020